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Generalized Anxiety

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a common mental health condition affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Characterized by excessive and persistent worry, GAD can significantly impact daily life and overall well-being.  Unlike normal feelings of anxiety, which are typically short-lived and tied to specific situations, GAD involves chronic and pervasive worry that is often difficult to control. This disorder can affect various aspects of an individual's life, including work, relationships, and personal pursuits.

To be diagnosed with GAD, an individual must exhibit several symptoms for at least six months, causing significant impairment in daily functioning. Symptoms can include:

  1. Persistent and excessive anxiety or worry about multiple aspects of life

  2. Difficulty controlling worry and anxious thoughts

  3. Restlessness or feeling on edge

  4. Fatigue

  5. Difficulty concentrating or finding that one's mind goes blank

  6. Irritability

  7. Muscle tension

  8. Sleep disturbances (trouble falling or staying asleep, unsatisfying sleep)

At St. Petersburg Psychotherapy, we recognize the immense distress and challenges faced by individuals with GAD. Our approach is grounded in empathy and compassion, ensuring that clients feel seen, heard, and understood as they navigate the complexities of this disorder.

What Causes GAD?

The exact cause of GAD is still unknown, but several factors are believed to contribute to the development of this disorder. These factors can be broadly classified into three categories: genetic, environmental, and psychological. Genetic factors may play a role, as GAD appears to run in families, suggesting that individuals may inherit a predisposition to anxiety. Environmental factors, such as childhood trauma, abuse, or neglect, can also contribute to the development of GAD. Chronic stress, including ongoing work or relationship problems, can exacerbate anxiety symptoms as well. Psychological factors, such as personality traits and thought patterns, can influence an individual's susceptibility to GAD. For example, people with a tendency towards perfectionism, low self-esteem, or negative thinking may be more prone to develop generalized anxiety disorder. It is important to note that these factors often interact, and a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors is likely to contribute to the development of GAD in most cases.

Attachment Theory and GAD

Attachment theory, developed by John Bowlby, postulates that early childhood experiences and the quality of the caregiver-child bond significantly influence an individual's emotional and relational development. Research has shown a connection between insecure attachment styles and the development of GAD. Insecure attachment styles, such as anxious or avoidant attachment, can result from inconsistent or inadequate caregiving, leading to a lack of trust in others and a heightened sense of vulnerability.


Individuals with insecure attachment styles may be more prone to develop GAD, as they often exhibit heightened sensitivity to perceived threats, fear of abandonment, and a pervasive sense of insecurity. This can manifest as chronic worry about various aspects of life, including relationships, work, and personal well-being. The anxiety experienced by individuals with insecure attachment styles may also be reinforced by maladaptive coping strategies, such as excessive reassurance-seeking or avoidance of potentially triggering situations. By understanding the connection between attachment theory and GAD, mental health professionals can develop more targeted and effective treatment approaches, such as attachment-based therapies, to address the root causes of anxiety and promote healthier patterns of relating to others.

Therapy and Generalized Anxiety

The therapists at St. Petersburg Psychotherapy provide a comprehensive and integrative approach to treating GAD, drawing from a diverse range of theoretical influences, including attachment theory, humanistic theory, existential therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and self-compassion therapy. This holistic approach allows therapists to tailor treatment to the unique needs of each client, addressing the root causes of anxiety while fostering personal growth and emotional resilience.


At St. Petersburg Psychotherapy, clients can expect to explore their early attachment experiences and gain insight into how these may contribute to their current anxiety patterns. An essential aspect of this exploration involves examining how one's attachment style influences the way they navigate and feel in their present interpersonal context. By identifying the impact of attachment style on current relationships and emotional experiences, therapists can help clients develop more secure and adaptive ways of relating to others.


Incorporating humanistic and existential principles, therapists assist clients in developing a greater sense of self-awareness, purpose, and personal agency. Cognitive-behavioral interventions are employed to identify and challenge maladaptive thought patterns, while self-compassion therapy encourages clients to cultivate a kinder, more nurturing relationship with themselves.


By integrating these various therapeutic approaches, we aim to help clients with GAD not only manage their symptoms but also address the underlying issues that contribute to their anxiety. This comprehensive approach promotes lasting change, enabling clients to lead more fulfilling and anxiety-free lives.

About the Author

Brad Schlosser is a therapist and Registered Clinical Social Worker Intern based in St. Petersburg, FL.  If you are a Florida resident and are interested in booking a session for in-person or telehealth counseling, please see the Contact Us page.

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